Property:Has description of metaphor, metonym, or other figurative expression

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A
[A] lawyer who makes a business of persuading accident victims to institute legal actions over personal injuries; he metaphorically pursues the sirens all the way to the emergency room.  +
B
Trees have ''branches'' that spread out far from the trunk of the tree. In a very common metaphor, the term ''branch'' is used to indicate a part of a larger organization.  +
C
A derogatory term applied by the popular press to a Northerner who went to the South during Reconstruction to pursue economic or political opportunities. Many of these Northerners carried their belongings in carpetbags. This term is also used by observers of current political affairs to describe a person who interferes with the politics of a locality to which he or she has no permanent or genuine connection.  +
D
Consider three phrases — now so commonplace as to be unremarkable — that we use to talk about data: * “Data Stream,” which refers to the delivery of many chunks of data over time; * “Data Mining,” which refers to what we do to get insightful information from data; and * “The Cloud,” which refers to a place where we store data. These tropes are notable because they use distinct, physical metaphors to try to make sense of data within a specific context. What’s more, all three impute radically different physical properties to data. Depending on the situation, data is either like a liquid (data streams), a solid (data mining), or a gas (the cloud). Why and how these metaphors get used when they do is not immediately obvious. There are tons of alternatives: Data could be stored in a “data mountain,” or data could be made useful through a process of “data desalination.”  +, Referring to “data exhaust” — a term sometimes used to describe the metadata that are created in the course of day-to-day online lives — reinforces the idea that these data, like car exhaust, are unwanted byproducts, discarded waste material that society would benefit from putting to use. On the other hand, calling data “the new oil,” carries strong economic and social connotations: Data are costly to acquire and produced primarily for commercial or industrial ends, but bear the possibility of big payoffs for those with the means to extract it.  +, [I]n all our talk about streams and exhaust and mines and clouds, one thing is striking: People are nowhere to be found. These metaphors overwhelmingly draw from the natural world and the processes we use to draw resources from it; because of this, they naturalize and depersonalize data and its collection. Our current data metaphors do us a disservice by masking the human behaviors, relationships, and communications that make up all that data we’re streaming and mining. They make it easy to get lost in the quantity of the data without remembering how personal so much of it is. And if people forget that, it’s easy to understand how large-scale ethical breaches happen; the metaphors help us to lose track of what we’re really talking about.  +,
The metaphor comes from communication theory, in which messages are 'decoded' (deciphered) or 'encoded' (put into a code ready to be sent).  +
In various [languages], the word for 'law' is derived from bases meaning 'place, set down', e.g. [Old English] ''dōm'' DOOM, [Greek] ''thémis'', [Latin] ''statūtum'' STATUTE, [German] ''gesetz''.  +
E
Esto es un ejemplo de la descripción de una metáfora, metonimia u otro tipo de frase figurada.  +
A metaphor from communication theory, in which messages are 'encoded' (put into code and sent) or 'decoded' (deciphered).  +
The example metaphor or metonym extends scope of the example of a term or phrase.  +
Isto é um exemplo de uma descrição de uma metáfora, metonímia ou outro tipo de expressão figurada.  +
F
Federalism is a metaphor for imagining the manner in which citizens conceive who they are and how they organise the relationships through which they pursue their purposes and ambitions in concert with others across the entire range of human interaction. Those who see federalism only as the structural consequence of a document called a constitution forget that federalism comprises both implicit and explicit texts and practices, as these are constantly churned by the pestle of everyday interaction in the mortar of social institutions.  +
I
Conceptual metaphors even lie behind the building of computer interfaces (e.g., the desktop metaphor) and the structuring of the Internet into "information highways," "department stores," "chat rooms," "auction houses," "amusement parks," and so on.  +, The word ''internet'' has many referents: hardware, software, protocols, institutional arrangements, practices, and social values. It is not a single thing. But much of its dynamism comes from the fact that, more often than not, the referent is left unspecified; it is spoken about ''as if it were'' a single object. This has allowed the word to become a kind of metonymy — a part that stands for the whole — for a complex, shifting, intertwined mix of institutions, technologies, and practices.  +
J
Puede suponer una gama amplísima de acuerdos entre empresas, desde meros contratos de colaboración a la creación de una sociedad conjunta.  +
L
Most contemporary economic theories, whether capitalist or socialist, treat labor as a natural resource or commodity, on a par with raw materials, and speak in the same terms of its cost and supply. What is hidden by the metaphor is the nature of the labor. No distinction is made between meaningful labor an dehumanizing labor. For all of the labor statistics, there is none on ''meaningful'' labor. When we accept the LABOR IS A RESOURCE metaphor and assume that the cost of resources defined in this way should be kept down, then cheap labor becomes a good thing, on a par with cheap oil. The exploitation of human beings through this metaphor is most obvious in countries that boast of "a virtually inexhaustible supply of cheap labor" — a neutral-sounding economic statement that hides the reality of human degradation. But virtually all major industrialized nations, whether capitalist or socialist, use the same metaphor in their economic theories and policies. The blind acceptance of the metaphor can hide degrading realities, whether meaningless blue-collar and white-collar industrial jobs in "advanced" societies or virtual slavery around the world.  +
The semantic development from "something laid down" to "decree, law" is not unique to English but is also found in German ''Gesetz'' law, from ''setzen'' to set down, and outside Germanic in Latin and Greek.  +, [T]he English word 'law' comes from a root meaning 'layer', which suggests that the original idea of the law was of something stratified or hierarchically arranged.  +
The use of legal means to fight a battle that would otherwise be waged by political or military means; legal action viewed as a form of war.  +
The most ubiquitous metaphors in legal research are RESEARCH IS A JOURNEY, RESEARCH IS EXCAVATION, and RESEARCH IS ACQUISITION. These metaphors originally arose from literal descriptions of the physical process of research. Seeking information, researchers journeyed to a library, excavated mountains of text in books, and acquired reams of paper. Our current understanding of research remains framed by the conceptual metaphors born of this physical experience.  +
The Latin word ''lex'', from which our modern word 'legal' is derived, originally meant a 'bundle of tied sticks', so that conceptually the old Roman lawyers were using a figure of speech to express the idea of something 'binding'.  +
Let us not forget that the very word 'literal' is a metaphor, albeit a buried one: the ''literal'' meaning of 'literal' is 'letter-by-letter' or 'word for word', so that ''literally'' speaking there can be no ''literal translation'' of any word or phrase from one language into another. What is conveyed or 'carried over' (''trans-lated'') is the sense, the tone, the register, the expected and natural equivalent in the ''other language'', since strictly to reproduce a foreign word or expression is to repeat it ''as it is'', e.g. ''cogito ergo sum'' for ''cogito ergo sum''.  +
N
Within the metaphor of the ecosystem, the various components of the Internet can be described as parts of the ecosystem. Depending on the issue at hand, the interconnection or network of the various elements could be highlighted; for other issues, perhaps the hierarchy of the ecosystem (e.g., food chain) is the focus. Returning to the example of net neutrality, it is likely that the interconnection aspect of the Internet is an important attribute, coupled with the idea that what occurs at one element in the ecosystem affects many other elements. Once the elements of the Internet are explained in terms of an ecosystem, the policy issues too can be explained. Perhaps a river, having a lock or a dam, could illustrate the role of an ISP in the ecosystem. Operation of the lock or dam has both positive and negative effects on what happens to different ecosystem residents downstream from the lock or dam. Using this metaphor to explain the Internet may be useful, especially as it provides information about both the technology and the policy issues.  +
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